I recently read a paper in which the author hadn’t authored directional hypotheses. They were just of the form that X was expected to be associated with Y. My reaction was just that a non-directional hypothesis was not much of a hypothesis, and I made a comment along the lines of, “you should probably clarify your ideas until you have more of an idea of how X and Y might be associated before you try to test the hypothesis with data.”
This leads me to try to be thinking if I have a more general position about the specificity required for something to be a substantively meaningful social science hypothesis. Does anyone have an example of something in social science where the hypothesis is non-directional (or is just a hypothesis that something “matters”), and that this hypothesis is not trivial? If so, please let me know.