clusters of sociology

Kieran’s recent analysis of philosophy citations reminded me that I’ve wanted to publish something similar for sociology.  So here it is and here’s how you can build a  reference network  at home.

The idea is pretty straightforward. You download a set of articles from Web of Science, including references. This could either be all the articles from a list of journals, all articles on a common theme, or articles that cite a specific manuscript or author.  In this case, I’ve grabbed 3,257 articles published in 50 US sociological journals in 2011 or 2012.

The content of the articles is not really of interest for our purposes. Instead, I look at the works that are cited, the pairs of works that get cited together, and the clusters of works that are commonly cited together. Through the  magic of network analysis, it turns out that the clusters of works that are commonly cited together tend to map onto what we think of as fields, subfields or areas of research (e.g., social movements or health disparities).

In this analysis, I looked at the 10,976 books or articles that had been cited at least three times in the 3,257 articles from the journals. I considered articles connected if they were mentioned together more than once. These connections produced a total of 95,061 edges. I’m using fairly arbitrary cut points, and you get slightly different clusters depending on how many nodes and edges you use.

Below are the top results for my analysis of sociological journals.  Each cluster starts with a list of the “Journals”, which are the journals that disproportionately publish work in the cluster. You will then see an emboldened list of words used most frequently in abstracts/titles that cite lots of work in a cluster. “Name” is the abbreviated name of the cited work; “centrality” is the within cluster betweeness centrality; and “frequency” is the total number of times the work was cited across all clusters. If you click on the name of an article, it will take you to a page that shows all the articles in the dataset that cite that work.

Journals: Social Science Research (231), Journal of Marriage and Family (157), Sociology of Health & Illness (147), Demography (130), Social Forces (117), Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion (103), Social Networks (94), Sociological Forum (93), American Sociological Review (81), Deviant Behavior (79), Population Research and Policy Review (77), Social Compass (70), Gender & Society (68), International Migration Review (67), American Journal of Sociology (66), Journal of Health and Social Behavior (64), Criminology (63), Review of Religious Research (62), Sociological Perspectives (61), Sociological Quarterly (59), Sociological Spectrum (58), Socio-economic Review (57), Poetics (56), Qualitative Sociology (54), Symbolic Interaction (53), Annual Review of Sociology (53), Punishment & Society-international Journal of Penology (52), Sociological Inquiry (52), Teaching Sociology (51), Theory and Society (50), Mobilization (50), Social Problems (50), Sociological Methods & Research (49), Ethnography (49), Journal of Contemporary Ethnography (48), Theoretical Criminology (47), Social Politics (45), Rural Sociology (44), Sociology of Education (39), Homicide Studies (39), Studies in Symbolic Interaction (38), Sociology of Religion (36), City & Community (36), Social Psychology Quarterly (35), Work and Occupations (33), Feminist Criminology (30), Sociological Theory (29), Journal of Mathematical Sociology (23), Sociological Methodology (13)

network, networks, ties, structure, individuals, models, model, high, capital, survey

Journals: Social Networks, Journal of Mathematical Sociology, Sociology of Education, Sociological Theory

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Granovetter M (1973) Am J Sociol 0.21 97 network, networks, ties, important, survey
Coleman J (1990) Fdn Social Theory 0.20 80 network, capital, networks, survey, individual
Wasserman S (1994) Social Network Anal 0.11 47 network, networks, structure, models, random
Coleman J (1988) Am J Sociol 0.09 84 capital, high, survey, important, ties
Mcpherson M (2001) Annu Rev Sociol 0.09 72 network, networks, ties, longitudinal, models
Putnam R (2000) Bowling Alone Collap 0.06 106 survey, capital, political, participation, religious
Burt R (1992) Structural Holes Soc 0.06 42 network, networks, ties, structure, capital
Portes A (1998) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 58 capital, survey, network, ties, status
Granovetter M (1985) Am J Sociol 0.03 37 network, networks, recent, cultural, differences
Lin N (2001) Social Capital Theor 0.02 39 capital, network, networks, resources, ties
Blau P (1977) Inequality Heterogen 0.02 38 networks, network, important, levels, level
Freeman L (1979) Soc Networks 0.02 23 network, networks, structure, graph, relations
Haynie D (2001) Am J Sociol 0.02 19 adolescent, behavior, peer, influence, longitudinal
Snijders T (2010) Soc Networks 0.02 20 network, networks, process, longitudinal, structure
Blau P (1964) Exchange Power Socia 0.02 29 exchange, network, theory, relations, levels
Feld S (1981) Am J Sociol 0.02 22 network, networks, ties, individuals, structure
Krackhardt D (1987) Soc Networks 0.02 16 network, networks, structure, ties, structural
Wellman B (1990) Am J Sociol 0.01 23 network, networks, ties, individuals, health
Berkman L (2000) Soc Sci Med 0.01 21 health, network, national, relationships, survey
Marsden P (1987) Am Sociol Rev 0.01 26 network, networks, ties, survey, resources
Snijders T (2001) Sociol Methodol 0.01 18 network, networks, models, stochastic, longitudinal
Moody J (2001) Am J Sociol 0.01 20 network, networks, schools, school, theory
Snijders T (2006) Sociol Methodol 0.01 17 network, networks, graph, random, models
Johnstone J (1961) Adolescent Soc Socia 0.01 14 school, longitudinal, schools, students, contrast
Uzzi B (1996) Am Sociol Rev 0.01 16 network, networks, embeddedness, economic, embedded

movement, political, movements, organizations, theory, role, well, institutional, literature, change

Journals: Current Perspectives in Social Theory, Mobilization, Socio-economic Review, Sociological Theory

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Dimaggio P (1983) Am Sociol Rev 0.26 64 theory, organizations, organizational, institutional, yet
Mcadam D (2001) Dynamics Contention 0.12 41 movement, political, movements, states, united
Mcadam D (1982) Political Process De 0.09 34 political, movement, movements, yet, mobilization
Benford R (2000) Annu Rev Sociol 0.06 36 movement, political, framing, cultural, movements
Mccarthy J (1977) Am J Sociol 0.05 25 movement, political, organizations, movements, theory
Meyer J (1977) Am J Sociol 0.05 50 organizations, organizational, institutional, theory, theories
Mcadam D (1996) Comp Perspectives So 0.05 32 movement, movements, political, organizations, mobilization
Tilly C (1978) Mobilization Revolut 0.04 31 political, movement, protest, mobilization, role
Polletta F (2001) Annu Rev Sociol 0.04 24 movement, political, movements, organizations, members
Snow D (1988) Int Social Movement 0.04 26 movement, movements, process, theory, framing
Friedland R (1991) New I Org Anal 0.04 23 theory, institutional, cultural, work, sociological
Prasad M (2006) Politics Free Market 0.03 9 political, global, sociological, economic, politics
Goodwin J (2001) Passionate Politics 0.03 15 theory, political, emotions, movement, understanding
Gamson W (1992) Talking Politics 0.03 25 movement, political, yet, collective, public
Fligstein N (2001) Sociol Theor 0.02 15 political, institutional, sociological, theory, fields
Armstrong E (2002) Forging Gay Identiti 0.02 18 political, cultural, movement, change, gay
Inglehart R (1990) Culture Shift Adv in 0.02 14 political, economic, survey, changes, environmental
Epstein S (1996) Impure Sci Aids Acti 0.02 14 political, interviews, knowledge, state, examines
Abbott A (1988) System Professions E 0.02 18 professions, sociological, studies, processes, yet
Taylor V (1992) Frontiers Social Mov 0.02 19 political, movements, movement, members, american
Lichterman P (1996) Search Political Com 0.02 12 political, movement, organization, although, public
Diani M (2003) Social Movements Net 0.02 19 movement, networks, organizations, movements, network
Dimaggio P (1991) New I Org Anal 0.02 24 action, institutional, movement, organizations, theory
Snow D (1986) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 29 movement, political, movements, framing, frame
Fligstein N (2001) Architecture Markets 0.02 20 economic, market, institutional, firms, institutions

work, interviews, identity, gender, women, theory, drawing, ways, experiences, them

Journals: Studies in Symbolic Interaction, Symbolic Interaction, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Social Psychology Quarterly

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Goffman E (1963) Stigma Notes Managem 0.19 76 stigma, identity, work, self, individuals
Goffman E (1959) Presentation Self Ev 0.15 92 identity, work, them, theory, life
Glaser B (1967) Discovery Grounded T 0.10 85 interviews, work, qualitative, ways, identity
West C (1987) Gender Soc 0.10 66 gender, women, men, gendered, women’s
Hochschild A (1983) Managed Heart Commer 0.10 41 work, interviews, emotional, ways, identity
Blumer H (1969) Symbolic Interaction 0.07 55 identity, processes, work, interaction, interviews
Charmaz K (2006) Constructing Grounde 0.06 54 interviews, work, identity, women, them
Connell R (1995) Masculinities 0.06 40 men, gender, masculinity, interviews, women
Garfinkel H (1967) Studies Ethnomethodo 0.06 44 work, interaction, drawing, identity, understanding
Mead G (1934) Mind Self Soc 0.06 50 theory, processes, self, others, work
Scott M (1968) Am Sociol Rev 0.06 32 identity, interviews, work, cultural, them
Giddens A (1991) Modernity Self Ident 0.05 50 interviews, life, cultural, health, drawing
Snow D (1987) Am J Sociol 0.05 27 identity, them, cultural, interviews, themselves
Crenshaw K (1991) Stanford Law Rev 0.04 15 gender, race, women, intersectionality, policy
Collins P (2000) Black Feminist Thoug 0.03 28 race, gender, ways, women, work
Link B (2001) Annu Rev Sociol 0.02 30 stigma, health, individuals, theory, interaction
Schwalbe M (2000) Soc Forces 0.02 17 identity, inequality, gender, men, strategies
Becker H (1963) Outsiders Studies So 0.02 34 identity, individuals, work, them, stigma
Sykes G (1957) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 27 work, them, identity, moral, theory
Habermas J (1984) Theory Communicative 0.02 12 theory, forms, so, account, explores
Stryker S (1980) Symbolic Interaction 0.02 16 identity, self, theory, others, life
Emerson R (1995) Writing Ethnographic 0.02 25 work, others, context, qualitative, people
Cooley C (1902) Human Nature Social 0.02 19 identity, others, theory, themselves, work
Stryker S (2000) Soc Psychol Quart 0.02 17 identity, self, themselves, theory, actors
Collins P (2004) Black Sexual Politic 0.02 19 gender, race, black, men, women

religious, religion, survey, national, beliefs, life, church, influence, attendance, levels

Journals: Review of Religious Research, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Sociology of Religion, Sociological Spectrum

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Steensland B (2000) Soc Forces 0.41 76 religious, religion, survey, national, beliefs
Stark R (2000) Acts Faith Explainin 0.11 36 religious, religion, survey, attendance, beliefs
Smith C (1998) Am Evangelicalism Em 0.06 32 religious, religion, influence, evangelical, survey
Verba S (1995) Voice Equality Civic 0.05 30 survey, participation, engagement, political, civic
Smith C (2003) J Sci Stud Relig 0.04 18 religious, national, religion, youth, role
Putnam R (2010) Am Grace Relig Divid 0.04 22 religious, religion, survey, groups, national
Smith C (2005) Soul Searching Relig 0.04 19 religious, religion, youth, national, religiosity
Berger P (1967) Sacred Canopy Elemen 0.03 26 religious, religion, survey, contemporary, groups
Chaves M (2004) Congregations Am 0.03 28 religious, congregations, congregational, national, survey
Uslaner E (2002) Moral Fdn Trust 0.02 13 trust, survey, generalized, general, level
Hunter J (1991) Culture Wars Struggl 0.02 17 culture, religious, american, political, public
Norris P (2004) Sacred Secular Relig 0.02 22 religious, survey, attendance, religion, belief
Casanova J (1994) Public Relig Modern 0.02 20 religious, religion, contemporary, public, political
Stark R (1996) Sociol Relig 0.02 14 religious, religion, role, survey, national
Edgell P (2006) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 17 religious, religion, american, life, survey
Hout M (2002) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 24 religious, survey, religion, belief, national
Dimaggio P (1996) Am J Sociol 0.01 12 public, culture, political, change, american
Ellison C (1995) Soc Forces 0.01 10 religious, survey, religion, role, attendance
Eccles J (1999) J Adolescent Res 0.01 6 activities, involvement, participation, school, found
Krause N (2008) Aging Church Social 0.01 12 religious, survey, older, nationwide, relationships
Iannaccone L (1994) Am J Sociol 0.01 17 religious, survey, religion, national, groups
Wilson J (1997) Am Sociol Rev 0.01 7 survey, people, volunteer, national, religious
Pargament K (1997) Psychol Relig Coping 0.01 14 religious, relationships, health, religion, involvement
Bellah R (1985) Habits Heart Individ 0.01 23 religious, religion, contemporary, survey, political
Ellison C (1991) J Health Soc Behav 0.01 11 religious, religion, attendance, national, involvement

crime, theory, criminal, behavior, studies, well, models, offending, individuals, violence

Journals: Criminology, Homicide Studies, Deviant Behavior, Feminist Criminology

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Gottfredson M (1990) Gen Theory Crime 0.23 72 crime, behavior, longitudinal, criminal, theory
Sampson R (1997) Science 0.12 57 neighborhood, neighborhoods, models, crime, characteristics
Hirschi T (1969) Causes Delinquency 0.10 57 crime, youth, national, behavior, school
Anderson E (1999) Code Street Decency 0.09 52 urban, cultural, understanding, violence, men
Laub J (2003) Shared Beginnings Di 0.06 33 crime, criminal, offending, behavior, longitudinal
Cohen L (1979) Am Sociol Rev 0.06 26 crime, criminal, theory, rates, limited
Sampson R (1993) Crime Making Pathway 0.06 33 behavior, national, longitudinal, criminal, crime
Long J (1997) Regression Models Ca 0.05 38 national, influence, relationships, time, health
Shaw C (1942) Juvenile Delinquency 0.04 29 neighborhood, crime, models, rates, areas
Moffitt T (1993) Psychol Rev 0.04 23 criminal, behavior, crime, offending, including
Sampson R (1989) Am J Sociol 0.03 28 neighborhood, characteristics, crime, structural, levels
Maruna S (2001) Making Good Exconvic 0.03 26 criminal, behavior, future, offending, prison
Anselin L (1988) Spatial Econometrics 0.03 16 regression, spatial, limited, rates, theories
Royston P (2005) Stata J 0.02 31 family, national, children, longitudinal, health
Krivo L (1996) Soc Forces 0.02 15 crime, neighborhood, neighborhoods, rates, models
Blau J (1982) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 15 crime, rates, violence, structural, violent
Land K (1990) Am J Sociol 0.02 17 crime, rates, higher, rate, homicide
Sampson R (1999) Am J Sociol 0.02 19 neighborhood, neighborhoods, models, crime, direct
Anderson E (1990) Streetwise Race Clas 0.02 22 conditions, processes, studies, american, individuals
Haynie D (2005) Soc Forces 0.02 23 adolescents, behavior, peer, school, characteristics
Bursik R (1993) Neighborhoods Crime 0.02 20 crime, neighborhood, neighborhoods, characteristics, community
Akers R (1998) Social Learning Soci 0.02 20 theory, behavior, learning, literature, deviant
Hirschi T (1983) Am J Sociol 0.02 14 delinquency, crime, national, higher, similar
Elliott D (1985) Explaining Delinquen 0.02 14 delinquency, delinquent, behavior, peer, survey
Pratt T (2000) Criminology 0.02 12 self-control, crime, peers, impact, modeling

family, children, survey, marriage, women, families, married, mothers, parents, national

Journals: Journal of Marriage and Family, Population Research and Policy Review, Demography, Journal of Health and Social Behavior

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Sandefur G (1994) Growing Single Paren 0.14 41 children, families, family, parents, longitudinal
Edin K (2005) Promises I Can Keep 0.10 41 women, national, mothers, family, survey
Cherlin A (2004) J Marriage Fam 0.10 28 marriage, national, survey, married, health
Sarkisian N (2008) J Marriage Fam 0.08 15 mothers, family, children, families, parents
Bumpass L (2000) Pop Stud-j Demog 0.07 30 family, national, cohabitation, married, differences
Osborne C (2007) J Marriage Fam 0.07 23 children, family, families, mothers, marriage
Hogan D (1993) Am J Sociol 0.05 16 children, family, families, parents, relationships
Nock S (1995) J Fam Issues 0.04 19 married, cohabiting, cohabitation, survey, marriage
Thornton A (2001) J Marriage Fam 0.04 28 survey, family, marriage, gender, women
Kennedy S (2008) Demogr Res 0.04 23 family, married, cohabiting, marriage, children
Fomby P (2007) Am Sociol Rev 0.04 22 children, family, families, mothers, longitudinal
Oppenheimer V (1997) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 14 economic, women, health, divorce, survey
Nomaguchi K (2003) J Marriage Fam 0.03 14 national, survey, married, mothers, adults
Carlson M (2004) Demography 0.03 18 marriage, marital, mothers, children, survey
Waite L (2000) Case Marriage Why Ma 0.03 21 marriage, survey, women, married, differences
Mclanahan S (2008) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 19 family, families, health, children, women
Becker G (1981) Treatise Family 0.03 27 women, survey, first, marriage, education
Mclanahan S (2004) Demography 0.03 23 survey, education, marriage, family, women
Eggebeen D (2005) Soc Forces 0.03 10 married, cohabitation, adult, greater, found
Bengtson V (2001) J Marriage Fam 0.03 15 children, parents, family, adult, life
Ruggles S (2007) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 10 households, children, living, family, families
Allison P (2002) Missing Data 0.02 39 child, models, important, health, children
Allison P (1995) Survival Anal Using 0.02 20 survey, groups, national, women, risk
Landale N (2007) Annu Rev Sociol 0.02 7 survey, fertility, family, women, hispanic
Waite L (1995) Demography 0.02 17 survey, marriage, national, women, marital

immigrants, migration, immigrant, states, survey, children, groups, united, population, differences

Journals: International Migration Review, Rural Sociology, Population Research and Policy Review, Demography

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Alba R (2003) Remaking Am Mainstre 0.31 66 immigrants, immigrant, groups, survey, differences
Portes A (1993) Ann Am Acad Polit Ss 0.13 53 immigrants, immigrant, groups, status, children
Portes A (2001) Legacies Story Immig 0.12 52 immigrants, immigrant, children, ethnic, states
Gordon M (1964) Assimilation Am Life 0.10 47 immigrants, ethnic, groups, assimilation, differences
Massey D (2002) Smoke Mirrors Mexica 0.07 22 migration, united, status, states, immigrant
Portes A (2006) Immigrant America: a Portrait 0.05 32 immigrant, immigrants, children, economic, states
Massey D (2008) New Faces New Places 0.04 18 economic, immigrant, destinations, survey, population
Massey D (1997) Am J Sociol 0.04 21 migration, migrants, mexican, population, destinations
Parrenas R (2001) Servants Globalizati 0.04 14 family, migration, gender, countries, families
Holdaway J (2008) Inheriting City Chil 0.03 24 immigrant, children, second-generation, immigrants, assimilation
Qian Z (2007) Am Sociol Rev 0.03 26 survey, racial, marriage, national, groups
Wirth L (1938) Am J Sociol 0.03 20 urban, community, important, communities, theory
Kandel W (2001) Int Migr Rev 0.02 9 migration, family, educational, children, education
Massey D (1994) Am J Sociol 0.02 10 migration, migrants, states, mexican, origin
Zhou M (1997) Int Migr Rev 0.02 25 immigrants, immigrant, children, status, groups
Lichter M (2003) Other Half Works Imm 0.02 12 market, labor, immigrants, immigrant, workers
Menjivar C (2000) Fragmented Ties Salv 0.02 14 family, networks, families, experience, survey
Donato K (2007) Rural Sociol 0.02 11 areas, rural, economic, destinations, population
Massey D (1987) Return Aztlan Social 0.02 14 migration, immigrant, migrants, mexican, us
Lichter D (2007) Rural Sociol 0.02 9 rural, labor, population, key, community
Waters M (1999) Black Identities W I 0.02 18 immigrants, children, immigrant, status, racial
Schwartz C (2005) Demography 0.02 20 survey, educational, marriage, women, education
Fussell E (2004) Demography 0.02 11 migration, mexican, origin, population, mexico
Zuniga V (2005) New Destinations Mex. 0.01 10 areas, destinations, immigrant, patterns, destination
Beck-gernsheim E (2007) Global Netw 0.01 5 family, migrant, differences, migrants, marriage

cultural, work, interviews, capital, sociology, theory, drawing, practices, processes, culture

Journals: Poetics, Theory and Society, Ethnography, Sociological Theory

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Bourdieu P (1984) Distinction Social C 0.23 96 cultural, capital, class, survey, interviews
Swidler A (1986) Am Sociol Rev 0.18 73 cultural, culture, work, understanding, people
Lareau A (2003) Unequal Childhoods C 0.12 57 children, family, parents, educational, differences
Lamont M (1992) Money Morals Manners 0.07 33 cultural, class, studies, approach, first
Bourdieu P (1990) Logic Practice 0.07 42 cultural, theory, interviews, drawing, habitus
Collins R (2004) Interaction Ritual C 0.06 41 interaction, theory, cultural, work, understanding
Dimaggio P (1997) Annu Rev Sociol 0.06 33 cultural, theory, religious, culture, yet
Bourdieu P (1977) Outline Theory Pract 0.05 48 work, cultural, approach, individuals, practice
Swidler A (2001) Talk Love Culture Ma 0.04 30 cultural, interviews, culture, work, approach
Becker H (1982) Art Worlds 0.04 21 theory, work, art, cultural, understanding
Brubaker R (1992) Citizenship Nationho 0.04 8 political, processes, state, past, strong
Peterson R (1996) Am Sociol Rev 0.04 29 cultural, capital, survey, culture, participation
Vaisey S (2009) Am J Sociol 0.03 24 religious, sociology, work, cultural, religion
Dimaggio P (1987) Am Sociol Rev 0.03 26 cultural, often, networks, yet, processes
Lamont M (1988) Sociological Theory 0.03 17 cultural, capital, activities, class, children
Gross N (2009) Am Sociol Rev 0.03 19 work, theory, pragmatist, action, process
Anderson B (1991) Imagined Communities 0.03 16 perspective, explores, them, concept, ethnographic
Tilly C (1990) Coercion Capital Eur 0.03 11 theoretical, political, state, growing, explores
Sewell W (1992) Am J Sociol 0.03 38 cultural, well, work, change, culture
Mann M (1986) Sources Social Power 0.02 11 state, sociological, key, political, understanding
Lizardo O (2006) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 19 cultural, network, networks, culture, structure
Lamont M (2000) Dignity Working Men 0.02 28 cultural, interviews, work, studies, them
Lamont M (2002) Annu Rev Sociol 0.02 38 cultural, boundaries, interviews, race, processes
Haidt J (2001) Psychol Rev 0.02 4 cultural, action, individuals, sociology, moral
Geertz C (1973) Interpretation Cultu 0.02 33 life, religious, ethnographic, work, cultural

work, gender, women, labor, survey, family, time, women’s, men, differences

Journals: Work and Occupations, Gender & Society, American Sociological Review, Social Forces

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Jacobs J (2004) Time Divide Work Fam 0.20 27 work, hours, survey, national, work-family
Correll S (2007) Am J Sociol 0.14 36 women, work, gender, men, women’s
Budig M (2001) Am Sociol Rev 0.12 25 work, women, gender, women’s, mothers
Blair-loy M (2003) Competing Devotions 0.07 21 work, gender, hours, interviews, women’s
Bianchi S (2000) Soc Forces 0.06 21 gender, time, work, housework, hours
Kanter R (1977) Men Women Corporatio 0.06 25 gender, women, men, work, job
Ridgeway C (2004) Gender Soc 0.05 25 gender, women, work, differences, women’s
England P (2010) Gender Soc 0.05 22 gender, women, women’s, work, men
Hochschild A (1997) Time Bind Work Becom 0.05 22 work, gender, family, women, time
Hays S (1996) Cultural Contradicti 0.04 32 work, children, mothers, interviews, family
Coltrane S (2000) J Marriage Fam 0.03 17 gender, work, housework, time, married
Fuwa M (2004) Am Sociol Rev 0.03 12 gender, countries, division, labor, family
Bianchi S (2006) Changing Rhythms Am 0.03 27 work, time, mothers, gender, children
Stone P (2007) Opting Out: 0.03 18 work, gender, survey, women, longitudinal
Charles M (2004) Occupational Ghettos 0.02 10 gender, women, work, equality, well
Acker J (1990) Gender Soc 0.02 25 gender, work, women, gendered, men
Reskin B (1993) Annu Rev Sociol 0.02 11 gender, women, work, differences, men
Bittman M (2003) Am J Sociol 0.02 19 time, gender, women, women’s, work
Cohen P (2007) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 8 women, men, gender, large, suggests
Gorman E (2005) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 12 gender, sex, well, women’s, women
Mennino S (2005) Sociol Quart 0.02 9 work, national, workplace, role, changing
Tomaskovic-devey D (1993) Gender Racial Inequa 0.02 11 men, important, work, levels, market
Radloff L (1977) Applied Psychological Measur 0.02 36 health, national, survey, longitudinal, mental
Yeung W (2001) J Marriage Fam 0.02 5 child, children, fathers, father, greater
Brooks C (2004) Soc Sci Res 0.02 12 survey, gender, attitudes, models, recent

neighborhoods, neighborhood, segregation, income, residential, racial, public, urban, black, blacks

Journals: City & Community, Sociological Spectrum, Theory and Society, Social Problems

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Massey D (1993) Am Apartheid Segrega 0.28 72 neighborhood, neighborhoods, racial, black, segregation
Wilson W (1987) Truly Disadvantaged 0.22 75 neighborhoods, neighborhood, poverty, high, studies
Raudenbush S (2002) Hierarchical Linear 0.09 96 survey, models, levels, multilevel, time
Florida R (2002) Rise Creative Class 0.07 16 cultural, neighborhood, residents, process, states
Sampson R (2002) Annu Rev Sociol 0.07 39 neighborhoods, neighborhood, health, exposure, behavior
Pattillo M (2007) Black Block Politics 0.05 17 neighborhoods, neighborhood, residents, gentrification, urban
Charles C (2003) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 25 racial, neighborhoods, neighborhood, segregation, blacks
Jargowsky P (1997) Poverty Place Ghetto 0.03 18 neighborhood, neighborhoods, income, poverty, black
Royston P (2004) Stata J 0.03 36 models, children, school, national, survey
Rumberger R (1987) Rev Educ Res 0.03 5 school, high, black, graduation, educational
Jencks C (1990) Inner City Poverty U 0.03 21 neighborhood, neighborhoods, income, children, housing
Bourgois P (1995) Search Respect Selli 0.03 10 urban, ethnographic, poor, poverty, men
Gieryn T (2000) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 16 place, community, processes, understanding, local
Jacobs J (1961) Death Life Great Am 0.02 14 neighborhood, residents, city, processes, neighborhoods
Wilson W (1996) Work Disappears Worl 0.02 29 survey, national, neighborhood, longitudinal, individuals
Logan J (1987) Urban Fortunes Polit 0.02 18 neighborhood, neighborhoods, political, residents, urban
Leventhal T (2000) Psychol Bull 0.02 18 neighborhood, neighborhoods, children, health, behavior
Farley R (1994) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 18 neighborhood, racial, neighborhoods, residential, whites
Beck U (2006) Cosmopolitan Vision 0.02 6 processes, key, political, identity, cultural
Pribesh S (1999) Demography 0.02 5 schools, during, school, students, outcomes
Sampson R (2008) Demography 0.01 12 neighborhood, neighborhoods, income, residential, children
Conley D (1999) Being Black Living R 0.01 18 survey, longitudinal, differences, race, wealth
Smith N (1996) New Urban Frontier G 0.01 9 neighborhood, residents, examines, neighborhoods, gentrification
Logan J (2004) Demography 0.01 17 neighborhood, segregation, neighborhoods, areas, residential
Garreau J (1991) Edge City Life New F 0.01 4 urban, spatial, contemporary, dynamics, political

prison, incarceration, penal, risk, work, prisoners, imprisonment, control, recent, criminal

Journals: Theoretical Criminology, Punishment & Society-international Journal of Penology, Ethnography, Deviant Behavior

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Garland D (2001) Culture Control Crim 0.29 46 criminal, state, crime, punishment, control
Foucault M (1977) Discipline Punish Bi 0.16 38 control, surveillance, practices, cultural, role
Western B (2006) Punishment Inequalit 0.13 35 incarceration, recent, men, states, united
Feeley M (1992) Criminology 0.11 24 law, penal, punishment, work, state
Garland D (1990) Punishment Modern So 0.08 23 state, criminal, examines, justice, prison
Sykes G (1958) Soc Captives Study M 0.06 17 prison, experience, imprisonment, prisoners, prisons
Beck U (1992) Risk Soc New Moderni 0.05 20 risk, second, political, change, first
Simon J (2007) Governing Crime War 0.05 25 criminal, state, law, punishment, penal
Goffman A (2009) Am Sociol Rev 0.05 13 united, states, risk, level, men
Crewe B (2009) Prisoner Soc Power a 0.04 12 prison, prisoners, experience, prisons, imprisonment
Clear T (2007) Imprisoning Communit 0.04 14 incarceration, criminal, association, consequences, incarcerated
Petersilia J (2003) Prisoners Come Home 0.04 18 incarceration, prison, work, significant, men
Reichman N (2001) Child Youth Serv Rev 0.03 30 child, families, fragile, children, wellbeing
Braman D (2004) Doing Time Outside I 0.02 16 incarceration, men, families, risk, incarcerated
Pager D (2007) Marked Race Crime Fi 0.02 23 work, men, time, contemporary, criminal
Pager D (2003) Am J Sociol 0.02 29 incarceration, men, imprisonment, after, association
Wacquant L (2009) Punishing Poor Neoli 0.02 12 punishment, penal, theoretical, united, there
Foucault M (1991) Foucault Effect Stud 0.02 16 practice, work, rather, so, forms
Haney C (2006) Reforming Punishment 0.02 7 experience, current, process, explain, life
Cohen S (2002) Folk Devils Moral Pa 0.02 9 moral, crime, recent, argues, ways
Foster H (2007) Soc Probl 0.02 11 incarceration, association, incarcerated, children, families
Bury M (2001) Sociol Health Ill 0.02 3 people, ways, attention, conducted, accounts
Rose N (2000) Brit J Criminol 0.02 8 control, risk, work, crime, state
Wakefield S (2010) Annu Rev Sociol 0.02 12 incarceration, men, association, consequences, imprisonment
Pettit B (2004) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 14 incarceration, men, association, risk, health

health, socioeconomic, models, age, differences, status, mortality, time, life, survey

Journals: Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Demography, Population Research and Policy Review, Sociological Methods & Research

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Link B (1995) J Hlth Social Behav 0.33 29 health, models, socioeconomic, risk, mortality
Idler E (1997) J Health Soc Behav 0.26 34 health, survey, status, self-rated, differences
Palloni A (2004) Demography 0.08 13 health, status, differences, outcomes, mexican
Ryder N (1965) Am Sociol Rev 0.06 13 change, period, cohort, age, survey
Williams D (1995) Annu Rev Sociol 0.06 17 health, disparities, status, income, time
Singer J (2003) Appl Longitudinal Da 0.06 32 longitudinal, growth, trajectories, models, differences
Mirowsky J (2003) Ed Social Status Hlt 0.06 20 education, health, survey, national, differences
Preston S (2006) Demography 0.06 9 mortality, age, women, groups, health
Palloni A (2006) Demography 0.05 11 health, age, children, educational, birth
Pearlin L (1989) J Health Soc Behav 0.05 23 health, survey, mental, perceived, psychological
Nylund K (2007) Struct Equ Modeling 0.04 10 latent, class, used, five, identified
Hayward M (2000) Am Sociol Rev 0.03 7 differences, black, health, men, adult
Case A (2005) J Health Econ 0.03 11 health, early, educational, birth, poor
Bmuthen B (2004) Hdb Quantitative Met 0.03 5 mixture, had, growth, found, girls
Yang Y (2006) Sociol Methodol 0.03 12 period, cohort, survey, models, change
Muthen L (1998) Mplus Users Guide 0.03 15 health, latent, family, longitudinal, found
Mason K (1997) Demography 0.03 5 fertility, countries, change, important, period
Conley D (2000) Am Sociol Rev 0.03 7 early, educational, birth, age, children
Boardman J (2002) Demography 0.03 6 early, age, health, childhood, disparities
Behrman J (2004) Rev Econ Stat 0.02 5 outcomes, early, birth, individual, family
Pearlin L (1981) J Health Soc Behav 0.02 24 health, survey, process, life, levels
Riley M (1987) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 6 age, women, reveal, trajectories, black
Yang Y (2009) Soc Forces 0.02 6 disparities, models, differences, health, levels
Mannheim K (1952) Essays Sociology Kno 0.02 13 change, changes, united, states, models
Ross C (1995) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 14 health, risk, national, education, models

survey, crime, discussed, states, criminal, national, related, theory, attitudes, fear

Journals: Feminist Criminology, Sociological Methods & Research, Punishment & Society-international Journal of Penology, Criminology

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Blalock H (1967) Theory Minority Grou 0.20 42 racial, composition, white, states, theory
Blumer H (1958) Pac Sociol Rev 0.13 31 race, theory, racial, threat, states
Allport G (1954) Nature Prejudice 0.12 39 contact, work, ethnic, positive, theory
Chiricos T (2001) Soc Probl 0.11 11 crime, criminal, states, threat, individual
Taylor M (1998) Am Sociol Rev 0.07 19 threat, ethnic, states, blacks, theory
Rountree P (1996) Soc Forces 0.06 9 crime, fear, perceived, perceptions, risk
Quillian L (2006) Annu Rev Sociol 0.06 13 racial, discrimination, race, attitudes, work
Quillian L (2001) Am J Sociol 0.05 13 threat, black, states, white, crime
Olzak S (1992) Dynamics Ethnic Comp 0.05 18 threat, u.s, perceived, race, public
Quillian L (1995) Am Sociol Rev 0.05 22 survey, ethnic, economic, states, theory
Covington J (1991) Sociol Quart 0.04 7 fear, crime, criminal, perceptions, risk
Chiricos T (1997) Soc Probl 0.04 6 crime, fear, media, criminal, risk
Warr M (2000) Criminal Justice 200 0.03 4 crime, fear, criminal, perceptions, relationships
Steffensmeier D (1998) Criminology 0.03 10 sentencing, offenders, suggests, theoretical, criminal
Baumer E (2003) Am J Sociol 0.03 7 individual, race, states, united, ethnic
Ferraro K (1995) Fear Crime Interpret 0.03 13 crime, fear, risk, victimization, perceived
Curtin R (2005) Public Opin Quart 0.03 8 rates, survey, changes, respondents, studies
Pager D (2008) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 14 discrimination, forms, race, groups, black
Liska A (1982) Soc Forces 0.02 6 crime, neighborhood, theoretical, criminal, individual
Freeman G (1995) Int Migr Rev 0.02 4 national, role, policy, during, countries
Ferraro K (1987) Sociol Inq 0.02 10 fear, crime, risk, victimization, related
Steffensmeier D (2000) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 6 incarceration, sentencing, criminal, federal, offenses
King R (2007) Soc Forces 0.02 8 population, criminal, threat, states, minority
Keeter S (2000) Public Opin Quart 0.02 10 survey, respondents, estimates, residents, states
Jowell R (2003) European Social Surv 0.02 8 countries, european, survey, country, surveys

educational, education, survey, high, school, students, differences, college, longitudinal, work

Journals: Sociology of Education, Social Forces, Demography, Social Science Research

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Buchmann C (2006) Am Sociol Rev 0.35 21 college, gender, women, differences, education
Manlove J (2007) Demography 0.22 8 relationships, sexual, including, health, behaviors
Morris M (1999) Annu Rev Sociol 0.16 20 inequality, labor, workers, income, united
Graber J (1996) Transitions Adolesce 0.16 3 contemporary, adolescence, health, family, young
Tavory I (2009) Am Sociol Rev 0.11 10 relationships, malawi, sub-saharan, condoms, survey
Rosenbaum J (2001) Coll All Career Path 0.10 21 educational, college, school, high, longitudinal
Mortimer J (2003) Working Growing Am 0.09 11 youth, work, development, school, life
Rosenbaum P (1983) Biometrika 0.08 29 propensity, survey, models, score, matching
Kreager D (2009) Soc Psychol Quart 0.07 6 relationships, sexual, longitudinal, sex, behavior
Kalleberg A (2000) Am Sociol Rev 0.06 17 work, labor, workers, outcomes, market
Shavit Y (1993) Persistent Inequalit 0.06 10 educational, attainment, education, levels, degree
Morgan S (2007) Anal Method Soc Res 0.06 30 education, models, survey, propensity, score
Sewell W (1975) Ed Occupation Earnin 0.06 12 educational, schooling, outcomes, education, important
Reynolds J (2006) Soc Probl 0.05 8 educational, school, high, outcomes, growing
Breen R (1997) Ration Soc 0.04 15 educational, education, attainment, college, higher
Schneider B (1999) Ambitious Generation 0.04 14 college, important, school, high, students
Piketty T (2003) Q J Econ 0.04 10 inequality, increased, income, change, private
Martin K (1996) Puberty Sexuality Se 0.04 6 relationships, gender, women, sexual, heterosexual
Goyette K (2008) Soc Sci Res 0.04 6 school, high, longitudinal, higher, education
Bernhardt A (2001) Divergent Paths Ec M 0.04 8 men, suggests, changes, increase, risks
Lucas S (2001) Am J Sociol 0.04 10 educational, education, lower, stratification, attainment
Fullerton A (2007) Soc Sci Res 0.03 8 change, work, better, review, jobs
Kohn M (1983) Work Personality Inq 0.03 8 structure, experience, work, personality, development
Staff J (2007) Soc Forces 0.03 6 attainment, work, youth, life, course
Raftery A (1993) Sociol Educ 0.03 11 educational, education, college, degree, family

world, countries, economic, political, global, cross-national, international, development, levels, environmental

Journals: City & Community, Work and Occupations, Sociological Inquiry, American Journal of Sociology

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Meyer J (1997) Am J Sociol 0.19 31 countries, world, models, global, international
Frank D (2000) Am Sociol Rev 0.13 19 world, global, cross-national, economic, organizations
York R (2003) Am Sociol Rev 0.10 18 environmental, environment, theoretical, theory, population
Schofer E (2005) Soc Forces 0.09 15 cross-national, world, countries, international, organizations
Alderson A (1999) Am Sociol Rev 0.09 13 countries, world, investment, inequality, economic
Wooldridge J (2002) Econometric Anal Cro 0.07 22 rates, countries, panel, many, increases
Beckfield J (2003) Am Sociol Rev 0.05 10 countries, organizations, global, international, theories
Kentor J (2003) Am Sociol Rev 0.04 9 countries, cross-national, economic, investment, trade
Bunker S (2005) Globalization Race R 0.04 10 international, environmental, theories, structural, sociology
Gereffi G (1994) Commodity Chains Glo 0.04 7 global, international, trade, economic, globalization
Halaby C (2004) Annu Rev Sociol 0.04 24 panel, economic, changes, longitudinal, period
Chasedunn C (1995) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 6 trade, world, international, theoretical, labor
Molotch H (1976) Am J Sociol 0.03 12 political, development, economic, theory, urban
Brady D (2007) Stud Comp Int Dev 0.03 8 countries, inequality, development, global, modernization
Schrank A (2004) Soc Forces 0.03 5 world, economic, particular, trade, specifically
Beck T (2001) World Bank Econ Rev 0.02 7 countries, rights, abuse, human, often
Dietz T (2007) Front Ecol Environ 0.02 8 environmental, environment, global, theories, theory
Alderson A (2002) Am J Sociol 0.02 14 inequality, income, policy, countries, economic
Alderson A (2004) Am J Sociol 0.02 6 economic, global, world, countries, network
Wallerstein I (1974) Modern World System 0.02 11 global, sociological, overall, countries, empirical
Boli J (1999) Constructing World C 0.02 12 world, organizations, global, models, society
Clark B (2005) Theor Soc 0.02 8 environmental, ecological, understanding, theory, political
Jorgenson A (2009) Soc Probl 0.02 9 environmental, cross-national, environment, nations, emissions
Bair J (2001) World Dev 0.02 4 where, political, global, promote, labor
Schofer E (2005) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 12 countries, international, models, organizations, cross-national

The clusters are sorted roughly by how many times they are cited in common works, so the smaller and/or more precarious clusters are at the end. If you don’t think the criminology journals belong, feel free to ignore those clusters. In the interest of space, I’ve trimmed off some of the smaller clusters, but you can take a look at the full list.

Based on my knowledge of sociology in general and the couple of areas I’m familiar with, the results seem plausible. Some specific cases may be less convincing, like I wouldn’t necessarily place DiMaggio and Powell (1983) near the center of the culture social movements cluster–the algorithm doesn’t excel at placing works, like the orgs literature, that span clusters and are primarily observed interacting with other major clusters. Addendum: The linked full list is slightly different because I used a different edge minimum. Major difference is  DiMaggio and Powell jumping between movements and culture.

I particularly like when methodological words show up in topical clusters, like “survey” in the religion cluster, “interviews” in the culture cluster, and “longitudinal” in the education cluster.

A couple of caveats:

  • Clusters shift when you use different node/edge minimums. In particular, works that span clusters tend to shift. Including more nodes tends to produce more clusters. Most often, new clusters are based on previously unsorted references and not on subdivisions of already existing major cliques.
  • I wouldn’t read too much into small differences within a given cluster. Betweenness centrality is based on your ability to connect disparate nodes, so the score depends heavily on which unlisted works are included in the cluster. That said, as a whole I think the list does a good job in showing many of the most central works in the cluster.
  • There are particularities in the ways the references are entered and the way references are handled. Some references are wrong, but more often the same work is cited multiple ways. This is especially true of books. I’m also not 100% sure I’m correctly parsing non-standard names like W.E.B. DuBois.

Despite these limitations, I would say that this analysis does a pretty good job of showing the major research areas in sociology and the central works in each of them. If it works for sociological journals, what about using the same method to look at social science research on social capital? It looks like social capital clusters on trust/participation (Putnam), management (Nahapiet), health (Kawachi), networks (Granovetter), entrepreneurship (Davidsson), education (Bourdieu), and environment (Smit). Again, this seems plausible. It probably would be useful to run an additional cluster analysis on just the cites in some of the clusters, but this wouldn’t be a bad starting place for looking at how we think about social capital.

Playing around with this for the last week, I’ve found it to be a pretty useful tool for quickly getting a handle on various literatures. For example, I made some for activism/social movements, climate change, Distinctiontop orgs journals, social media, and terrorism. Note that the analysis of works that cite Distinction has Distinction showing up a couple of times under different names.

I’m working on putting this program online so you can upload your own Web of Science files, but I wouldn’t hold your breath. In the mean time, I’ve put the program and instructions on GitHub. It requires Python and a couple of dependencies, but most of the options are available from the command line.

12 thoughts on “clusters of sociology”

  1. Thanks for putting this together. It is interesting for many reasons, but it’s neat to see which fields are open to change.

    For example, social psychology/work/identity cluster is dominated by lots and lots of old stuff. My areas (movements/orgs) is a bit younger – 1990s/early 2000s – with a single representative from my generation (Armstrong). Family seems to have a fair number of old and new things.

    It’s also interesting to note that a lot of fields with recent cites are actually old ideas but updated (e.g., networks and Snijders development of p*, which was hatched by Wasserman as p1).



  2. No cluster for inequality? Or is this an uber-cluster?

    It’s also striking that inequality, social class, mobility, income, and stratification don’t appear as keywords. (Maybe “social class” can’t, because it’s two words?)


    1. Thanks. Last I checked, the JSON should work for a d3 force layout. I wrote my own exporter so people didn’t need a non-standard NetworkX version and because I wanted to include node weights.

      I haven’t done any visuals because the number of nodes/edges that make interesting clustering is often too many to display.


  3. I was not surprised by DiMaggio and Powell showing up in the movements cluster, especially given the increased emphasis on movements in orgs. In the management literature, movements are one example of a mechanism of organizational change which must be considered in relation to others.

    Anyway, this is very cool.


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